Brazil has a totally different feel to it than the other Latin American countries. It positively vibrates, it is dynamic and the whole country has a unique energy. Its ethnic mix is very different from most South American countries with a predominance of Afro American people, especially in the Bahia coastal region. Brazil is a much underrated country in terms of tourism. Our trips explore much of the country, especially the little known regions and National Parks.
Most visitors start in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil's most famous city and home to the Christ the Redeemer statue. The deeper you travel into the country, the more the culture of Brazil is exposed. This is a chance to hear the soulful music which is influenced from Africa and Europe and brings the distinctive sounds of Samba, Choro, Brega and more, echoing throughout the land.
With the Amazon Rainforest covering large parts of Brazil, the natural environment is home to much wildlife and bio deversity. Eco safari in the rainforest and Pantanal are becoming popular elements of Brazilain tour
One of the many wonders is the language. Although Portuguese is the main language in Brazil, over 200 languages are spoken in the country, and the diversity of each reflects the diversity of the regions.
Brazil is also the place to taste many unique foods. Inspired by others to cook, no matter what direction you head in the country, you are bound to find something new each time. To the south of Brazil is the taste of grilled meats that melt in your mouth, and to the north is the amazing Manicobo dish, that takes at least a week to prepare.
Border information: If you are starting in Rio de Janeiro, enter Brazil at Rio de Janeiro Airport.
The first day of Rio Carnival is free time, as everyone will be arriving at various times throughout the day to start the package. Hotel check in is from midday and Dragoman crew will be on hand all day to give you any assistance. There will be joining meetings held in the afternoon at 16:00 and 17:00 hrs. Please check the notice board in the lobby / reception area to see the exact time of your meeting.
If you are on an overland trip coming in to Rio, today will be a drive day bringing you to the biggest party on the planet!
Meet your fellow travellers at the welcome meeting
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Dragoman Carnival crew to look after you during your stay
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Rio de Janeiro has to be one of the most beautifully situated cities in the world. Sugar Loaf Mountain rises up out of Guanabara Bay, the sandy beaches of Ipanema and Copacabana cut beautiful curves in the shoreline, all under the watchful gaze of Christ the Redeemer.
This is a city with something for everyone; beaches, history, shopping, culture, fantastic food and amazing nightlife. For amazing views of this spectacular city, take the cable car up to the top of Sugar Loaf, or "Pao de Azucar" as the Brazilians call it, ride the train to Corcovado or jump on the tram to the historic hillside neighbourhood of Santa Teresa. If you're interested in learning more about Rio and Brazil, the Historical, Indian and National Museums are all well worth a visit, and even just wandering around the older parts of the city you'll be able to see some fantastic architecture. Kick back and relax on the beach, enjoy a beer or caipirinha at one of the many pavement cafes and then when evening comes you can party the night away - Rio has some unbelievable bars and clubs, Lapa is always a fun night out and Ipanema is always buzzing too. If you need a bit of quiet time to recover, take a walk in the Botanical gardens, or escape town for the day on an excursion to the lust forests of nearby Tijuca National Park.
Of course Rio is particularly famous for it's huge annual party - Carnival. The celebration of Mardi Gras 6 weeks before Easter is a great Brazilian tradition - the whole city goes wild for a full 7 days in a whirlwind of music and colour. Samba schools compete with ever more awe-inspiring dance displays and costumes putting on marathon perfomances in the Sambadrome, street parties are held all over the city and friends and families take to the beach.
Today is free time for you to explore the surrounding area in the lovely Flamengo district, or further afield.
Discover the vibrant city of Rio de Janeiro
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This morning we have an optional visit to one of the most iconic sights in Brazil - the statue of Christ the Redeemer at the top of Corcovado mountain. From the base of the statue there is an incredible vista of southern Rio and its beaches, as well as the Sugarloaf mountain and Guanabara Bay. Accompanied by our local guide you will travel in a private bus to the foot of the mountain and onwards along the scenic route to the top. You will spend some time at the top with time for photos of the statue and the view of the city before returning to the hotel in our bus. If you want to spend longer at the top of the mountain and make your own way back to the hotel just let your guide know. Please note that this activity would have had to be pre-booked through your sales agent.
In the afternoon you have the chance to head to one of Rio's most famous sights, Pão de Açúcar (Sugar Loaf Mountain). Rising almost 400 metres above the harbour, its name is said to refer to its resemblance to the traditional shape of sugar blocks that were shipped from Brazil during the heyday of sugar cane trade in the 16th century. However, it is believed by some that the name actually derives from Pau-nh-acuqua ("high hill") in the Tupi-Guarani language, as used by the indigenous Tamoios. Accompanied by our local guide you will travel in private bus to the foot of the mountain from where you will get the cable car to the top. From the top of the mountain you have a beautiful view of the city and Copacabana beach. If the weather is clear it is also possible to see Christ the Redeemer looking down at the city from the top of Corcovado mountain. Please note that this activity would have had to be pre-booked through your sales agent
This evening it's time for the main event of Carnival - the Sambadrome parade! The top samba schools parade down the runway with their outrageous floats and fantastic costumes. It's a wonderful spectacle to behold and we'll party well into the early hours to the sounds of the upbeat samba music! Included are tickets to sector 13 and return tickets on the Metro.
Ticket to the Sambadrome Parade in sector 13
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Upgrade to sector 11 in the Sambadrome for a closer view
Party all night to the fantastic sounds and sights of the Samba schools parade
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Half day guided tour of Sugar Loaf Mountain
Half day guided tour of Corcovado mountain and the world famous Christ the Redeemer
Today is a free morning to relax after the late night in the Sambadrome.
In the afternoon there's the option to go for a guided visit to the Morrinho project which is a favela community project we support. Please note that this activity would have had to be pre-booked through your sales agent.
In the evening there's the option to return to the Sambadrome - either to see the remaining 6 schools or why not to don a costume and take part in the parade! Please note that these activities would have had to be pre-booked through your sales agent.
For a second visit in the stands we have tickets for sector 5, which is nearer the entrance to the Sambadrome than sector 13.
If you opt to actually take part in the parade, this will be a real thrill and an unparalleled experience. Yes it will be hot and sweaty and your feet will ache after an hour or more parading but it will be a talking point for years to come. Not many people can say they have actually taken part in a Sambadrome Parade! It will take between 65 and 80 minutes to complete the parade, including around 30-40 minutes within the Sambadrome itself. You don't need to be able to actually samba; rather there is a kind of jumping, bouncing way that people parade, to create the whole feeling of strength and happiness. However, you will need stamina and will need to put your utmost energy into your performance; this is the most important event of the year for Cariocas (the people from Rio) and you will be playing a part on the biggest stage in the world!
Second visit to the Sambadrome in Sector 5
Free time to chill out on the beach
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Join in and be part of the Sambadrome Parade, an experience of a lifetime!
Be part of the costumed Sambadrome parade, an amazing once in a lifetime experience
Visit Community Project Morrinho - a model favela
Today you have a full free day to explore; perhaps find a 'block party' to continue the festivities.
In the evening there's the option to go to the gay ball. The balls at Carnival are part of the whole experience and this has been the most popular ball from past Dragoman visits. If you are going to visit just one ball then this is the one we recommend! Put aside any inhibitions you may have, put on your costume and get dancing with all the other partygoers. It is a fantastic experience and people are generally very friendly with loads of photo opportunities and some incredible sights! Music is a combination of Samba and more modern music; there is something for everyone and if dancing is really not your thing there is plenty of people watching to do. Please note that this activity would have had to be pre-booked through your sales agent.
Check out the local parades and soak up the Brazilian Carnival atmosphere
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Dress up and go to the Gay Ball, the most colourful of all the balls
Today you have the option to go on a colonial tour of the city and round off the Carnival week with a lovely boat trip on the Guanabara Bay.
The colonial tour will give you an insight into a side of Rio very different from the one we see along the beaches and at the main tourist sites. Accompanied by our local guide you will travel in both private bus and on foot through the Cultural Corridor of Rio de Janeiro, visiting colonial buildings, centenary churches and Cultural Centres and discovering the heritage of Rio de Janeiro's earlier days as a Portuguese colony. You will visit the area of Santa Teresa and the colourful Escadaria Selaron before heading to downtown Rio to view its stunning churches, cobbled streets and wonderful architecture, both modern and historical. The last stop will be at Gloria Church. If you should wish to spend longer there, your guide will explain to you how to go back to the hotel on foot. Please note that this activity would have had to be pre-booked through your sales agent.
On our boat trip we will navigate around the bay seeing the famous landmarks of Rio de Janeiro and the Rio-Niteroi bridge from our private schooner. The trip takes around 3 hours and is very scenic, with gorgeous views of the surrounding mountains. Soft drinks and beers will be for sale on board for those who would like some refreshments.
Take a tour of colonial Rio and learn about the city's history and heritage
Enjoy a boat trip around Guanabara Bay with lovely views of the city and its surrounding hills
Border information: If you are leaving in Rio de Janeiro, exit Brazil at Rio de Janeiro Airport.
The final day of the Carnival package. Depart at any time or spend the day exploring further or relaxing. There is no accommodation provided for tonight.
Rio at Carnival
Rio de Janeiro is one of the most beautifully situated cities in the world. Nestling beneath the Sugar Loaf Mountain, "Pao de Azucar", that rises out of Guanabara Bay, and flanked by the sandy beaches of Ipanema and Copacabana. The Carnival at Rio is one of the best spectacles in the world and lasts for about 5 days on the run up to Shrove Tuesday. The whole city comes alive with music, singing and dancing and the streets are never empty. Be prepared for sleepless days and nights, as the partying is non-stop, be it in the streets, or at one of the many balls, or in the famous Sambadrome watching the parading carnival groups with their extravagant costumes and floats. The various samba 'schools' all compete for a prize and the honour of being the champion carnival group of the year. Around the time of the Carnival, our trips are timed to fit in with the event, so you can be sure of enjoying Carnival with a group of like-minded people and there are likely to be over 100 fellow travellers enjoying the carnival experience. We will however aim to keep you in smaller groups of 20-25 for planned activities.
There is just so much to see and do in Rio and at Carnival it is even busier than usual, but there is still something for everyone. As part of the Carnival package we provide you with a Sambadrome ticket to sector 13 plus your accommodation; however we offer the opportunity to do a lot more. There are many other activities to do whilst in Rio at Carnival time. Dragoman has arranged a number of optional activities that you can book in advance. Prices for these optional activities and further details are available here. We recommend pre booking, as this way we can make all the necessary arrangements ready for your visit - other options may be available and could be cheaper but availability cannot be guaranteed. For other things to do, try some quiet time in stunning surroundings at the Botanical gardens, shop at the "hippie" markets for jewellery and paintings and of course there are the beaches to lie on and all the local street parades to dance at. Just make sure you get plenty of sleep before you arrive in Rio for Carnival.
Day 1: Friday
The first day is free time, as everyone will be arriving at various times throughout the day to start the package. Hotel check-in is from midday and Dragoman crew will be on hand all day to give you any assistance. There will be a joining meeting in the afternoon - in past years there has been one at 16.00 and 18.00. Please check the Carnival Noticeboard in the Hotel Reception for further details on arrival.
Day 2: Saturday
Today is a free day to have a look around the city. In the morning there's the option to join us for a guided visit to Corcovado mountain and the Christ the Redeemer statue.
Optional Corcovado visit - price £65
Day 3: Sunday
After lunch you may wish to join us on a guided tour to one of landmarks of Rio - the sugar loaf mountain. Late afternoon it may be wise to have a disco nap before the big highlight of Rio Carnival - a visit to the Sambadrome! Included in your trip is a ticket to sector 13, or you may chose to upgrade to sector 11 for a bit of a closer view of the parade.
Optional Sugar Loaf Mountain visit - price £74
We will take an afternoon half day tour to visit the iconic Sugar Loaf Mountain or Pao De Azucar as it is locally known. We leave from the hotel on our coach, accompanied by our local guide and all entrances are included. The Sugar Loaf mountain gets its name from its shape, as the huge rounded incline looks like traditional cones of sugar. These sugar cones were made from raw sugar to make transportation easier. On arrival at the base of the mountain, we will board the cable car and head up to the mid way point and then up to the top station. The ride in itself is a fantastic experience skimming above the forested mountain peak with the sea and city spreading out below. At both stations there are incredible views of the city below and across to Corcovado. There will be plenty of time to wander around and take in the spectacular views, learn more about the construction of the cable car and enjoy a drink or snack at one of the restaurants. Just make sure you have plenty of space on your memory card for all your photos. Once we have taken our fill of the panoramic views we return to the bottom by cable car and back to the hotel on our waiting coach.
The Sambadrome was designed by Brazil's world-famous architect, the modernist Oscar Niemeyer. It was purpose-built for the Samba Parade and inaugurated in 1984. Being made of concrete, it seems a bit dated for the post-modern eyes of today and feels derelict if not ugly, surrounded only by favelas, serving only little cultural events, during the year. However it comes to life and is totally magnificent and overpowering being lit up with special effects on. Samba Parade nights, filled with thousands of cheering spectators and surrounded by other thousands of people who could not get in. It can seat around 70,000 people, which is already far too few for the ever growing Rio Carnival Parade. However, since it is under protection, it cannot be rebuilt or even extended. The Samba schools have prepared all year for their hour of glory on carnival night. The top 12 Samba schools parade on Sunday and Monday, six each night. The two nights are similar in terms of set-up, the only difference being the schools parading. These are the most glamorous parades, the ones which need to be seen. The best school is chosen by a hand-picked set of judges on the basis of many components including percussion, the theme song, harmony between percussion, song and dance, choreography, costume, storyline, floats and decorations. The championship is hotly contested, with the winner becoming the pride of both Rio and Brazil. Samba is a glitzy, lavish, vegas-style affair with beautiful, topless mulatas who make samba look easy in their feathered head-dresses, long flowing capes sparkling with sequins and rhinestone studded G-strings. The floats are also extremely lavish and some of them are technically quite amazing. The Brazilians harness sweat, noise and confusion and turn it into art, with the parades beginning in moderate mayhem then working themselves up to a higher plane of frenzy. The samba is driven by the drummers with between 200 and 400 per school. This samba is the loudest music you are ever likely to hear in your life. The parades head down the “run way” of the Sambadrome flanked by the tiers of spectators, singing, dancing and applauding their favourite schools. The parade continues on through the night and into the morning. Some of the best schools are always kept until last to make sure that the party continues until the very end. Click here to view a map of the Sambadrome.
Sambadrome Visit (sector 13) - included
On Sunday night we will be situated in sector 13 , this allows an overview of the whole event and a good chance to party with the locals. Sector 13 is at the end of the sambadrome runway and is slightly set back however has the best atmosphere of all the stands. It is full of local Cariocas who really support their samba school with lots of singing and dancing. It is a wonderful local experience but can get very busy, reminiscent of a noisy football crowd. There are no fixed seats but concrete bleachers and people stand up as the samba schools pass by. We will travel to the Sambadrome in the early evening by metro and on foot with the Dragoman crew. It is up to you how long you stay but every year there are a few who make it through to the last parades and get back to the hotel for breakfast at 7am!
Optional Sambadrome Upgrade to sector 11 - price £225
Sitting in sector 13 is not for everyone and for those of you who want a view which is less set back we offer you the chance to upgrade to sector 11. This sector neighbours sector 13 but is much closer to the action. The seating however is identical, being on concrete bleachers and can be equally busy but not quite so boisterous.
Day 4: Monday
Today is a free morning to relax after a late night in the Sambadrome. In the afternoon you may wish to join us to a guided tour of a favela and a community project that we support. In the evening you have the chance to return for some more of the lavish spectacle in the Sambadrome - either as a spectator in sector 5 or why not don a fabulous costume and join in the parade!
Optional Favela Project - price £58
Morrinho is the name used by the youth of the Pereira da Silva favela for their scale model of a favela made basically with bricks. The "Morrinho" began in 1998, when Nelcirlan (14 years old at that time) starting building the Morrinho, together with his brother Maycon. Both were impressed with the view of favelas, high on the hillside, and decided literally to bring it closer. The "toy" became a construction and attracted other boys like Rodrigo, Naldão, Júnior, Paulo Vítor, Luciano and Raniere, and became a part of the community. Today, the "Morrinho model", occupies an area of 300 square metres in the community "Pereira da Silva", with wealth of details such as: funk clubs, police, drugs sales points, alleys, staircases, small bars etc. The colours are strong and vibrant, the constructions are unusual and unique, and the vegetation is integrated with the "bonsais" wisdom. Miniature vehicles and motorcycles fill out the streets. In the interiors of the residences you can see beds, dressing tables and closets. All the details show the creative imagination of the guys that constructed the Morrinho. They drew streets, built support walls to contain hillsides, distributed light posts etc. Their plastic universe reveals the aesthetic fullness of the favela, often portrayed by international artists, photographers and film directors. The model is now being used to generate money by the NGO Morrinho, a charity that provides professional qualifications to the residents of the Pereirão Community through workshops including audiovisual production, art-education, Brazilian culture, and youth and citizenship. The charity is also involved in utilising the project as a film set, which has raised awareness of how harsh life is for shanty town dwellers. Trip includes transport, guiding services and a donation to the charity.
Optional Return to the Sambadrome (sector 5) - price £275
During Rio Carnival the top 12 Samba schools parade in the Sambadrome with 6 parading on the Sunday night and then 6 on the Monday night. This second visit will give you the opportunity to see all 12 of the schools so you can choose your own winner! You will be exhausted after a second visit but it’s a fantastic experience! Included is your Sambadrome ticket, Metro tickets and guiding services.
Optional Join the Parade - price £520
Watching the parade is one thing but actually taking part in the parade, is a real thrill and an unparalleled experience. Yes, it will be hot and sweaty and your feet will ache after an hour or more parading but it will make a talking point for years to come. Not many people can say they have actually taken part in a Sambadrome Parade. You will be a part of one of the ground wings or alas, parading behind the massive floats that make up the parade. Each school has between 65 and 80 minutes to parade and each ala/ wing passes through the Sambadrome in about 30-40 minutes, it is exhausting but unforgettable! The alas provide a massive display of colour and movement, each school has about 25 alas – each one tells a part of the overall story/ theme of the Samba School. The alas get judged for their stamina throughout their parade, the singing of the whole parade, being able to Samba is not necessary – there is a kind of jumping, bouncing way that people parade to overall create the whole feeling of strength and happiness. You will be 1 of the approx 4,000 paraders in a school, each and every person must put their utmost energy into their performance for the School. This is the most important event of the year for Cariocas (the people from Rio) and you will be playing a part on the biggest stage in the world! It is an amazing once in a lifetime experience you will never forget.
Your costume will be delivered to the hotel ready for the parade, and is yours to keep! You will then be accompanied by a guide to the starting point. You will need to meet your ala and school about 2 hours before the parade time (the first school will meet at 19.00 and the last at 01.00 approx) the parade lasts about 1 hour. Please note that Metro tickets are included but entry into the Sambadrome is not included.
Please note that Brazilian shoe size and clothing sizes are needed at the time of booking - click here to view a conversion table and guide for sizing. For shoe sizes it is advisable to order one size larger than usual as the shoes are often very tight.
Day 5: Tuesday
Today is free day for you to explore the city and an opportunity to have a walk along the beaches, maybe a swim or maybe just a long lie in! The famous sweep of Copacabana Beach is probably the most talked about length of sand on the planet. It is a fantastic location with Sugarloaf mountain at one end whilst far in the distance you see further peaks covered in Atlantic rainforest. There are plenty of small cafes serving drinks and snacks along the beachside pavement, when you are ready for a break from the sand. In this stunning location even the pavements are beautiful, with white and black tiles forming waves and patterns. Late evening there's the option to attend the famous gay ball!
Optional Gay Ball - price £57
The balls at Carnival are part of the whole experience and this has been the most popular ball from past Dragoman visits. If you are going to visit just one ball then this is the one we recommend! Put aside any inhibitions you may have, get your costume sorted - plenty of glitter absolutely necessary - and get dancing with all the other partygoers. It is a fantastic experience and people are generally very friendly with loads of photo opportunities and some incredible sights! Music is a variety of Samba and more modern music, something for everyone and if dancing is really not your thing there is plenty of people watching to do. The ball can startle some people and please be aware that in previous years you have had to parade down a pink carpet when you enter, usually whilst being filmed live on Brazilian TV. It really is a memorable event and one which you will talk about long after carnival has been and gone. Make sure you save a bit of energy for this climax to carnival. The ball goes from midnight on Tuesday until the early hours of Wednesday morning. Please note that transport is not included but it is easy to share a taxi there and back with fellow revellers. Please also note that you may be able to find cheaper tickets available and you could get them at the door of the ball. However, this cannot be guaranteed and in 2013 tickets sold out and were exchanging hands for twice the face value in the days leading up to the carnival.
Day 6: Wednesday
Today is a free day but if you wish to explore further then why not join our local guide on a Colonial Tour of the city. Today you will also have the option to go on a boat trip around the Guanabara Bay.
Optional Colonial Tour - £34
This tour will give you an insight into another side of Rio from the one we see along the beaches and at the main tourist sites. Accompanied by our local guide we will travel in both private bus and on foot through the Cultural Corridor of Rio de Janeiro, visiting colonial buildings, centenary churches and Cultural Centres and discovering the heritage of Rio de Janeiro earlier days as a Portuguese colony. We will visit the area of Santa Teresa, the colourful Escadaria Selaron before heading to downtown Rio to view its stunning churches, cobbled street and wonderful architecture, both modern and historical. Cost includes entrances, transport by private bus and guiding services.
Optional Guanabara Boat Trip - £20
In the late afternoon we will walk down to the Gloria marina and board our privat schooner for a trip around the Guanabara Bay. The navigation will last for about 3 hours and you will get to see the city and its famous landmarks from a different perspective. We will see the Rio-Niteroi bridge and maybe enjoy a drink or two from our bar. When we're back on dry land again your Dragoman crew will accompany you back to the hotel on foot. Included is the services of Dragoman crew and your ticket. Soft drinks and beers will be available for sale.
Day 7 Final day
This marks the end of our Rio carnival package and the start of our trips leaving Rio to explore more of Brazil and South America.
Optional activies – All the optional activities listed above need to be booked prior to arrival at Carnival and by 31 December 2013 at the latest. This can be done by contacting Dragoman's sales team or your agent. More details can be found here.
Accommodation – This is on a shared basis (twin/triple and quad share) with breakfast included daily but no other meals. All rooms are en-suite with air-conditioning, TV, fridge and safe.
Money changing – Banks will be closed over most of Carnival but some money changers stay open although exchange rates are not always that good. Cash will give you the best exchange rates - usually USD, GBP and EUR are easily exchanged. Travellers Cheques whilst being the safest option will give you a poorer exchange rate - American Express Office is open through Carnival for exchange. Cash machines are located nearby to the hotel but can run out of money, so plan in advance and be very aware of theft and fraud.
Crew – Although there are likely to be over 100 people attending carnival you will be split into groups of no more than 25 for the included activities, each group being allocated a Dragoman leader.
There is no kitty. Accommodation is on a B&B basis, in shared rooms and is covered by the tour cost.
You may wish to consider bringing the following items with you to Rio Carnival:
We intend following the planned route but exact night stops cannot be guaranteed. It sometimes happens that we decide to make a change to our basic planned itinerary. This may be for a variety of reasons - climatic, road or bureaucratic conditions may demand it. By their very nature overland itineraries need to be flexible and the regions that we are travelling through are often unpredictable. We run adventure journeys in off the beaten track areas, often in areas without western infrastructure. You should expect that some these areas do not adhere to western safety standards.
Most countries we visit on our travels will require visas. Some are best obtained before you leave home and others can be obtained en-route. Whilst the ultimate responsibility for obtaining visas is yours, we will endeavour to assist you wherever possible.
The visa requirements for your trip vary depending on where you are from and where you are going. The information provided is given in good faith and we do try to keep the visa information as up to date as possible. Please be aware though that rules do change, often without prior warning, which is why it is important that you check for yourself.
For visas that are needed in advance, you can choose to submit the applications directly to the relevant embassy or consulate. However, our recommendation is that you use a visa agent to assist you with your applications. While this does increase the cost, it will make the process much easier for you. Dragoman have teamed up with ‘The Visa Machine’ to create a safe, secure, hassle-free way of obtaining visas and visa advice. Our unique link within their website is designed to make the visa process as straightforward as possible. Simply go to https://dragoman.thevisamachine.com and click on your region of travel followed by your trip route and ‘The Visa Machine’ will advise you about not only the required visas but also the dates by which you should apply. ‘The Visa Machine’ can then assist you in the actual visa application, thus taking all the worry and hassle out of the process. This should apply for ALL nationalities and countries of residence.
As you will need to submit your passport together with your applications, we recommend that you avoid making any travel plans in the weeks leading up to your departure. However if you do need to travel in this period please let us know as soon as possible so that we can help you work out the options for your visa application process.
Nationals of the EU,
If your nationality was not included in the above mentioned group, please contact your nearest embassy to find out your visa requirements.
If your flight to central or South America is via the USA then you MUST obtain an Electronic System for Travel Authorization (ESTA) before travel.
An ESTA can be obtained online via the following link and paying the appropriatefee - https://esta.cbp.dhs.gov/esta/