Nile Route between Cairo and Khartoum, (ZCK)

Khartoum to Cairo 27 days, departing 25 Feb 2014
A local taking his camel towards the Pyramids of Giza, near Cairo Falafel for sale in the Sudanese capital of Khartoum Locals relaxing in the shade, Khartoum A view over Cairo from the Saladin-era Citadel

Trip Overview

Trip Style: Overlanding
Route: Khartoum to Cairo
Duration: 27 days
Transport: Overland expedition vehicle, Private bus, Overnight boat
Physical Rating:

EASY HARD


These are physical tours; you may well be travelling at high altitudes, across deserts or through cold and windy or hot and steamy areas.
Accommodation:

25%75%

Hotels, Hostels, Campsites, Wild Camps

Route Map

Countries Visited

Egypt

Egypt is a country packed full of internationally-celebrated historical sites! 

The history and culture of Ancient Egypt spans back an incredible 6000 years, and vast swathes of this heritage remains in its brilliantly-preserved glory. From the earliest Old Kingdom sites of Saqqara and Dashur, to the New Kingdom capital of Luxor and the Valley of the Kings, to the Ptolemaic-era Temple of Edfu and the Greek and Roman sites of Alexandria, the country is brimming full of history and unique treasures.

The capital Cairo is the largest city in Africa, and is full of fascinating places to visit such as the Egyptian Museum and the Saladin-era Citadel, as well as being the centre of culture, art and music in the Arabic world. However, the main attraction for visitors are the iconic Great Pyramids of Giza - the oldest and only remaining of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, the Pyramids are one of the most incredible and mind-blowing sights on the planet.

Some of Egypt's other amazing historical highlights include the remarkable Temple of Ramses II at Abu Simbel, the impeccably-preserved Temples of Edfu and Dendara, and Luxor's alley of the Kings and the Temple of Karnak. Other fantastic highlights are experiencing the coast of the glittering Red Sea, strolling around the busy city of Alexandria, exploring the remote Sahara deserts, and of course drifing down the famous River Nile on a traditional felucca sailing boat.

Egypt has an amazing history, and there is so much to be discovered and so many adventures to be found.

Sudan

Sudan is one of the least-visited places in Africa, and yet it has so much to offer the overland traveller. The friendliness of the Sudanese people is legendary in traveller circles, and you'll always find a warm and curious reception from the locals!

Khartoum is the capital city, and it is full of life and colour - there's a few interesting museums to explore and some incredible markets to see.

Sudan is famous for its unique Kushite-era temples and steep-sided pyramids. Much less-known than the ancient treasures of Egypt, the ancient Nubian ruins of Meroe, Naqa and Musawwarat are incredibly impressive and very special to witness.

Perhaps Sudan's biggest highlight is the vast and desolate Sahara Desert, and the incredible journey that we will make while overland across the country. Sudan is one of the world's best areas for remote and serene wild camping, and our many nights camping out underneath the dazzling stars will be truly transcendent.

Cherish this wonderful and often-overlooked country. Meet some of the friendliest people in the world, embrace the traditions and you'll never forget the magic of Sudan.

 

 

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Daily Itinerary

A local taking his camel towards the Pyramids of Giza, near Cairo
The Mediterranean coastline of Alexandria, northern Egypt
The 15th-century Mamluk Citadel of Qaitbey on the Mediterranean coast at Alexandria, Egypt
The beautiful modern library of Alexandria, Egypt
A view over the town of Aswan, southern Egypt
The ancient Egyptian temple of Philae, near Aswan
A spice market in Aswan, Egypt
Traditional felucca sail-boats on the Nile near Aswan
A view over Cairo from the Saladin-era Citadel
Camels looking towards the Great Pyramids of Giza
The world-famous Great Pyramids of Giza, built 4000 years ago
An atmospheric market in central Cairo
Two icons of Ancient Egypt, the Great Pyramid of Giza and the Sphinx
Another incredible view of the Pyramids of Giza, near Cairo
A local taking his camel towards the Pyramids of Giza, near Cairo
Ruined statue in the Karnak Temple, on the site of the former ancient Egyptian capital, Luxor
The entrance to the huge site of the Karnak Temple, Luxor
The incredibly-preserved colours of the wall paintings in the Valley of the Kings
The colourful sunset over the incredible ruins of the Karnak temple in Luxor
Stunning murals in the temples of Luxor
The collosal pillars in the Karnak Temple, Luxor
The Colossi of Memnon, two massive statues of Pharoah Amenhotep III, near Luxor
The outdoor façade of the Temple of Hatshepsut, near the Valley of the Kings, Egypt
Falafel for sale in the Sudanese capital of Khartoum
Locals relaxing in the shade, Khartoum
A sunset over the Sudanese capital of Khartoum
The sun sets over the Nile near Khartoum, Sudan
The 'Roman Kiosk' ruins at the Temple of Naqa site, Sudan
The Kushite Temple of Naqa, Sudan
Sunrise at our wild camp spot near the Musawwarat Temple ruins, Sudan
Waiting to clear immigration at the Sudan-Egypt border post of Wadi Halfa
Driving into the Sahara in search of a wild camping spot near Dongola, Sudan
A local woman sells souvenirs near Karima, Sudan
The mountain of Jebel Barkal near Karima, Sudan
The phenomenal deserted site of Meroe, with its 2500-year-old Kushite pyramids
Ruined and restored pyramids at the ancient Kushite southern capital of Meroe, Sudan
Ruined and restored pyramids at the ancient Kushite southern capital of Meroe, Sudan
The phenomenal deserted site of Meroe, with its 2500-year-old Kushite pyramids
The incredible Ptolomaic-era Temple of Horus at Edfu
A close up of some of the murals at the Edfu Temple
The phenomenal Ptolomaic-era Temple of Horus at Edfu, the best-preserved temple in Egypt
The vast Lake Nasser between Egypt and Sudan
The stunning forests of Chitwan National Park, Nepal
Setting up our wild camp in the deserts near Atbara, Sudan
The Maungmagan beaches near Dawei, Myanmar
The deserted Kushite ruins of the Temple of Soleb near Wawa, Sudan
Sunbathing at a camp site in Egypt with our truck
The sails of a traditional Egyptian felucca boat
Feluccas on the River Nile near Aswan
A camel taking a break in the Eastern Deserts of Egypt

Day 1 to 2: Khartoum

( Tue 25 Feb to Wed 26 Feb )

Border Information: if joining in Khartoum, you will most likely enter Sudan at Khartoum International Airport.

There will be an important group meeting at 6:00pm - please look for a note from your leader at the hotel reception when you arrive with more details about this important meeting. Your leader will need to collect your passport in order to get everyone's visas registered on Day 2.

On Day 2 you will have a free day to explore Khartoum, including the the impressive Grand Mosque and the bustling Omdurman market.

In Khartoum we stay in a comfortable hotel with good facilities.

Activity Approximate Cost

Freely explore the huge markets of Omdurman and Arabi in Khartoum

Free

Learn all about the Islamic Mahdist era with a visit to the Khalifa House Museum and the Mahdi's Tomb in Omdurman

USD 1
About Khartoum:

Khartoum is Sudan's fascinating capital and an interesting place to explore. The city is split down the middle by the Nile - the British colonial city, ornate mosques and modern business districts on the east banks, and the sprawling settlements, markets, and iconic Whirling Dervishes of Omdurman on the west.

There are some good museums in the city, such as the Khalifa Museum in Omdurman, near the Mahdi's tomb, or the National Museum. Khartoum is located on the confluence of the White Nile and Blue Nile, and this can be seen at the 'Mogran' area of the city.

Day 3: Naqa, Musawwarat

( Thu 27 Feb )

Today we will head north out of Khartoum to explore the Kushite temples of Naqa and Musawwarat. 

Tonight we aim to wild camp in the deserts near Musawwarat.

Estimated Drive Time - 9 hours (please note that all drive times given here are approximate estimates only and are given with the best intentions - however please be aware that the drive times are heavily dependent on traffic, road conditions, weather, police roadblocks, and many other factors - flexibility is essential on any overland trip!).

Activity Approximate Cost

Explore the ancient Kushite temples of Naqa and Musawwarat

Included in Kitty
About Naqa:

Fifty kilometres east of the river Nile lies the ruins of the ancient city of Naqa, built by the Kushite Empire. This ancient site is one of the largest in Sudan, and two of the largest temples here are very well preserved.

Naqa served as one of the centres of the Kingdom of Meroe and it served as a bridge between southern Africa and the Mediterranean. The two temples are dedicated to Amun (the king of the gods) and Apedemak (a lion-headed guardian of deceased kings that was revered prominently by the Merotic people of Nubia). There is also a small temple called the 'Roman Kiosk' due to it's Greco-Roman appearance, which was likely dedicated to the worship of Hathor (the godess of joy and motherhood).

All are relatively well preserved, and the Apedemak temple in particular has some beautiful carvings and is considered a classic piece of Kushite architecture.

About Musawwarat:

Musawwarat es Sufra is the site of a large Kushite temple complex, dating back to the 3rd Century BCE. It contained the primary cult temple of the Meroitic deity Apedemak, a lion-headed god that was said to guard the tombs of kings and other royalty, casting a curse on anyone who would disturb the tombs. The complex had a labyrinth of courtyards, passages, walls and columns, and had many sculptures of animals such as elephants. The complex layout of the site is, as far as is known, without parallel in the entirety of Nubia and ancient Egypt - and it is thought that the complex may have contained a college, a hospital, and even an elephant-training camp!

Day 4: Meroe

( Fri 28 Feb )

Today we will head north to visit the incredible and haunting Meroe pyramids of the Kushite era. We will then continue on to Karima. 

We aim to wild camp in the deserts near Merowe or Karima.

Estimated Drive Time - 8 hours.

Activity Approximate Cost

Explore the other-worldly pyramids at Meroe, the late capital of the Kushite civilisation

Included in Kitty
About Meroe:

Meroe was the southern capital of the Kingdom of Kush for several centuries between 850 BCE and 350 CE. Early signs of culture in Nubia (northern Sudan and southern Egypt) first appear from around 3500 BCE, when Egypt was in the period of the Old Kingdom. Over time, the Nubian Kushite kingdom became increasingly powerful and consequently the Egyptians began to feel threatened, which prompted an invasion where they attempted to subdue their close neighbours.

Having given in to occupation, Kush effectively became a province of Egypt between 1500 and 1100 BCE. During this time the Egyptians controlled all the trade and the mineral wealth, in particular the gold mines - this is what made Egypt the richest nation in the world during this time, and led to the two cultures being assimilated and becoming one. The Egyptians eventually withdrew from Nubia around 1100 BCE, and in the ensuing vacuum a group of powerful kings arose.

The kings of the Kush had aspirations far beyond their frontiers - one of them, Pharaoh Kashta, was invited by the powerful priests of Amun in Thebes to intercede on their behalf in the internal conflict between the reigning Egyptian Pharaohs. Consequently he and his successor Piankhy received the blessings of the priests, proceeded north, conquered and reunified the warring states of Egypt and thus began the rule of the "Black Pharaohs" from 760 BCE through to 660 BCE. 

The Kushite Pharaohs did more than rule - they reinvented Egypt with a cultural renaissance. Some of the finest treasures, temples and artwork date from the period of Nubian rule, known as the Kushite or 25th Dynasty. However their reign in Egypt was shortlived, as at the zenith of their glory the Assyrians invaded Egypt and the Kushite Pharaohs were forced to flee south with their armies and court to their homeland of Nubia. Despite attempted invasions from Egypt, the Kingdom of Kush continued to flourish under an unbroken line of kings until the 4th Century CE, when it finally collapsed due to internal rebellion. At the same time, Egypt was endiring successive invasions from Persia, the Greek state of Macedonia (under Alexander the Great) and finally by Rome.

Perhaps the most splendid of all the Kushite temples and pyramids are those at Meroe, Naqa and Musawwarat. The pyramids at Meroe are the most impressive in Nubia and the site is very well preserved and restored. By the 4th Century BCE, the Kushite kings had moved south down the Nile and set up the royal city in and around Meroe. The southern culture gradually prevailed over Egyptian culture and the area became a powerful centre of trade between the north and the south. The site of Meroe was home to a large population supported by advanced irrigation and a centralised political system - Roman baths, royal palaces, pyramids and temples all tell the tale of an advanced Egyptian-style civilisation.

Today the site is virtually unvisited. Scattered across the sands of the desert are numerous steep pyramids with entrance pylons. The guardian of this Nubian site has been there since 1977 and has probably seen every visitor who has passed through since then. While the mainstream tourists flock to the Egyptian ruins to our north, you will have this remarkable site to yourself. Only a few travellers and a handful of tour groups a year come here.

Day 5 to 6: Karima, Dongola, Wawa

( Sat 01 Mar to Sun 02 Mar )

Over the next 2 days we will journey north through the remote areas of Northern Sudan and the vast Sahara Desert. En route we will visit many ruined temples of the Kushite era, including the pyramids at Jebel Barkal mountain near the town of Karima, the Temple of Deffufa near Dongola, and the Temple of Soleb near Wawa.

All of these nights we will wild camp out in the remote deserts, which is the true highlight of travelling overland through Sudan!

Estimated Drive Time - 8 hours each day.

Activity Approximate Cost

Visit to the Kushite temples and climb to the summit of the distinctive Jebel Barkal mountain

Included in Kitty

Visit the pre-Kushite Temple of Deffufa, a 5,500 year old Nubian archaeological site built by the Kerma civilisation

Included in Kitty

Explore the ruins of the Temple of Soleb

Included in Kitty
About Karima:

Near the small town of Karima are the ruins at of the Temple of Amun underneath the distinctive flat-topped mountain of Jebel Barkal.

The hill top of Jebel Barkal was one of the earliest spiritual centres of Kush, and a major landmark for traders and travellers navigating their way through Nubia. The all-powerful Egyptian Pharaoh Ramses II constructed a temple to the Theban god Amun here in the 13th Century BCE, some of which remains to this day. 600 years later, it is said that the great Nubian Pharaoh Taharqa had the mountain's peak covered in gold during his reign in the 7th Century BCE.

The area has numerous historical sites, including some the tombs and pyramids at nearby Nuri - this site contained the tombs of 21 kings, together with 52 queens and princes. Taharqa, the penultimate king of the 25th Dynasty, was the first king to build his tomb at Nuri, and it is the biggest pyramid built at the site. These pyramids are on the opposite bank of the river from Jebel Barkal, and you can get some excellent views of the site if you have the energy to climb to the top of Jebel Barkal!

About Dongola:

The ancient site of Old Dongola is a deserted town on the east bank of the Nile - it was an important settlement in medieval times, as it was the departure point for caravans heading west towards Darfur and Kordofan. The old town flourished between the 4th and 14th Centuries CE as the capital of the Kingdom of Makuria, a small Christian kingdom that ruled over the surrounding areas as far north as modern-day Aswan at its peak. In the 19th Century, the remaining population of Old Dongola moved 80kms downstream to the modern site of Dongola.

About Wawa:

Soleb is a ruined town in modern-day Sudan just north of the Third Cataract of the Nile, and was the site of an important ancient Egyptian temple built during the 18th Dynasty. Several important Pharoahs of the mid-18th Dynasty visited the site, including Amenhotep III, Akenaten, Tutankhamun, and Ay. The small village of Wawa lies on the opposite bank of the Nile, so we can take a small boat across the river to explore the ruins.

Day 7: Wadi Halfa

( Mon 03 Mar )

Today we will come to the end of our long journey through the wilds of Northern Sudan and reach the dusty frontier town of Wadi Halfa on the southern shores of Lake Nasser.

The rest of the day will be free for us to explore the hills above Wadi Halfa, or to relax in the shade!

Today your crew will also take the truck away to be loaded on a vehicle barge, when it will then be shipped away to Aswan, so we will get everything we need for the next few days off the truck.

In Wadi Halfa we will stay in a basic local hotel.

Estimated Drive Time - 2-3 hours.

Day 8:

( Tue 04 Mar )

Border Information: Exit Sudan at Wadi Halfa, enter Egypt at Aswan.

From Wadi Halfa we will board an overnight ferry to cross Lake Nasser.

The crossing of Lake Nasser is a fantastic local experience! Please don't expect a Nile cruise boat or any kind of luxury - this is an old passenger ferry designed for the locals, with very limited comforts with basic food available. We will reserve the small and very basic cabins with beds on the boats, however many customers prefer to sleep in the open air on the deck of the ship, which again is a fantastic experience.

Depending on sailing routes and conditions, we should pass the lit-up temple of Abu Simbel en route after the sunset.

The journey usually lasts about 17 hours, but it is notoriously unpredictable and very chaotic at both ports - please be prepared for long waits at the port without any information about setting off times, etc., and very busy border checks - maximum flexibility and co-operation with your tour leader will be needed!

Day 9 to 11: Aswan

( Wed 05 Mar to Fri 07 Mar )

Upon disembarking the ferry in Aswan and clearing immigration into Egypt, we will be met by our local fixer and transfer in a minibus to the city centre of Aswan.

We will have 3 nights to enjoy to wealth of history and culture that Aswan has to offer, and to make optional visits to Philae Temple, Elephantine Island, the Nubian Museum, and of course the absolutely incredible temples of Abu Simbel.

During our time in Aswan we will be reunited with our truck when it arrives on the vehicle barge!

In Aswan we stay in a comfortable hotel in the centre of the town, next to the Nile River.

Activity Approximate Cost

Visit the Philae Temple, a beautiful Ptolomaic-era temple to Osiris on an island near Aswan

EGP 110

Visit the controversial Aswan High Dam

EGP 30

Take a boat trip out to Elephantine Island to explore its ruins and Nileometers, and to the beautiful botanical gardens on Elnabatat's Island

EGP 90

Explore the Tombs of the Nobles near Aswan, the rock-hewn tombs of nobility all the way from the Old Kingdom to the Roman era

EGP 40
About Aswan:

Aswan is a beautiful town situated on one of the most picturesque parts of the Nile - it has stunning vistas, a vibrant market, some wonderful ancient sites, and the whole town is characterised by the Nubian people.

At Aswan you can visit the phenomenal Philae Temple, a quarry with an unfinished obelisk, and the famous Aswan high dam - the dam was built to control the flow of the Nile thus creating Lake Nasser, the largest artificial lake in the world. There is also an opportunity to take a boat trip out to the beautiful Elephantine Island and explore the botanical gardens on nearby Einabatat Island, which were originally cultivated by Lord Kitchener. 

Another highlight of Aswan is the excellent Nubian Museum, which showcases the unique and fascinating Nubian culture and history. Aswan is wonderful for a having dinner on one of the many floating riverfront restaurants, watching the traditional feluccas sail by.

Day 12: Nile Felucca, Aswan

( Sat 08 Mar )

Today we will board a traditional felucca sailboat for an overnight adventure exploring the Nile by boat.

Accommodation tonight will be on board the felucca.

Activity Approximate Cost

Discover the River Nile by boat on an afternoon and overnight felucca trip

Included in Kitty

Day 13 to 15: Edfu, Luxor

( Sun 09 Mar to Tue 11 Mar )

This morning we start our journey north through Egypt and visit the incredible Temple of Edfu, an awe-inspiring temple dedicated to Horus built during the Ptolomaic era, which is considered to be the best-preserved cult temple in Egypt.

After this we will head to Luxor, a beautiful modern town built on the site of the Ancient Egyptian capital of Thebes, where we will spend 3 nights exploring the incredible historical sites here.

Estimated Drive Time - 10 hours (including the Edfu temple visit).

On Day 14 we will have an included guided tour around the world-famous Karnak Temple, which is walking distance from our hotel. This temple contains some remarkably preserved painted walls and many awe-inspiring pillars and obelisks, and was the centre of religious life in Thebes. Our tour will last about 2 hours, and then we will have free time for the rest of the day to explore the temple independently, and to visit the other sites in Luxor such as the smaller Luxor Temple in the town centre, and the small but beautiful Luxor Museum, which is filled with priceless treasures from the area.

On Day 15 we will have an included tour to the West Bank, which will encompass the Hatshepsut Temple and the phenomenal Valley of the Kings, the location of the tombs of the Pharoahs of the New Kingdom of Ancient Egypt.

In Luxor we will stay in a comfortable hotel.

Activity Approximate Cost

Take a guided tour of the Ptolomaic-era Temple of Horus at Edfu, considered to be the best preserved temple in Egypt

Included in Kitty

Take a guided tour of the monumental Temple of Karnak, built over approximately 1700 years between the Middle Kingdom and the Ptolomaic era

Included in Kitty

See the Sound and Light show at the Karnak Temple

EGP 100

Explore the colossal 18th-Dynasty Temple of Luxor

EGP 65

Visit the fascinating Luxor Museum of Antiquities

EGP 80
About Edfu:

The Temple of Horus in Edfu (also known as the Temple of Edfu) is considered the best-preserved cult temple in Egypt. This partly because it was built later than most during the Ptolemaic era after Alexander the Great's invasion of Egypt - it is thought that the temple was constructed over nearly 200 years between 237 and 57 BCE.

Dedicated to the falcon god Horus, Edfu is also the second largest temple in Egypt after the Karnark Temple in Luxor. Despite its later construction, the temple exactly reflects the traditional Egyptian Pharaonic architecture and provides us with an excellent and authentic idea of how all the temples once must have looked. The temple is a spectacular highlight of our time in Egypt, featuring large sections that are completely preserved and very little that lies in ruins. Much of the paintwork has been preserved, and the interior carvings are very intricately designed.

About Luxor:

Situated on the banks of the Nile, modern-day Luxor was once the ancient Egyptian capital of Thebes (also known to the Ancient Egyptians as Waset). Thebes was first inhabited from around 3200 BCE, initially merely as a small trading post when the Old Kingdom capital was at Memphis, near current-day Cairo. Thebes grew as a religious centre throughout the Midde Kingdom between 1900 and 1700 BCE, but rose to huge prominence in the 18th Dynasty (New Kingdom period) when it was made the capital by Pharoah Ahmose I in around 1550 BCE. The New Kingdom, with Thebes as its capital, saw some of the most influential Pharoahs come to power, including Hatshepsut, Amenhotep III, Akenaten and Tutankhamun - after the onset of the 19th Dynasty in 1292 BCE, the capital was moved to the Nile Delta.

On the site of Thebes is the modern town of Luxor, and there are some unbeliveable highlights to be found in and around the town. In the north of the town is the spectacular temple complex of Karnak, the largest temple in Egypt and the second largest religious site ever built in the world (second only to Angkor Wat in Cambodia). From humble beginnings in the Middle Kingdom, Karnak was continually added to and modified all the way up until its abondoment in 323 CE, making it a site that was active for over 2000 years! The temple has a vast array of pillars, pylons, and temples, including the largest still-standing ancient obelisk in the world, erected by Hatshepsut in the mid 15th Century BCE.

On the other side of the Nile on the west bank is the world-famous Valley of the Kings - a hidden labyrinth of tombs of former Pharoahs and other nobles dating from the 16th to the 11th Centuries BCE, including that of Ramses II, Hatshepsut, Akenaten, and of course of Tutankhamun. So far, 63 tombs and chambers have been discovered, many with phenomenal paintings and murals inside that have been protected from sun damage for centuries. Unfortunately, all of the tombs have been ransacked by various tomb robbers throughout the ages - all except for the tomb of Tutankamun, which was discovered in 1922 with the entrance and all the treasures within completely intact - the contents having now been moved to the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.

Day 16 to 17: Dakhla Oasis

( Wed 12 Mar to Thu 13 Mar )

Today we will leave the bank of the Nile and start our journey out into the Western Deserts of Egypt. Our first stop is the town of Mut in the heart of the Dakhla Oasis, site of a series of natural hot springs. En route we may stop to have a look at the Bagawat Necropolis in El-Kharga if it is open.

Estimated Drive Time - 10 hours.

We will spend 2 nights in Dakhla, where can take the opportunity to take an optional evening or overnight camel trek out into the deserts. The overnight trip is a real favourite, where you can have dinner with the Bedouins and camp out in the open air in the deserts. 

In Dakhla we will camp in the grounds of a basic desert lodge.

Activity Approximate Cost

Overnight Camel Safari into the Western Desert

USD 35
About Dakhla Oasis:

Verdant cultivated areas and a great wall of rose-hued rock across the northern horizon make a feast for the eyes in Dakhla Oasis. Dakhla has Pharaonic, Roman and Coptic antiquities, dunes, palm groves and hot springs to explore.

 

Day 18:

( Fri 14 Mar )

We will have free morning in Dakhla, while any participants return from the overnight camel safari. Then we will continue our journey north to reach the magical other-worldly landscape and rock formations of the White Desert. 

We will explore the desolate beauty of the White Desert in the evening, and then wild camp out in the desert tonight, another real highlight of this trip!

Estimated Drive Time - 5-6 hours.

Day 19: Bahariya Oasis

( Sat 15 Mar )

Today we will leave the White Desert and journey through the Black Desert and past the Crystal Mountain to reach the town of Bawiti in the Bahariya Oasis. 

We will visit the small museum that houses the Ptolemaic-era Golden Mummies that were found in the area.

In Bahariya we will camp in the grounds of a basic desert lodge.

Estimated Drive Time - 3-4 hours.

About Bahariya Oasis:

Situated in Egypt's Great Western Desert, Bahariya is the smallest of the four oases in this area. It used to serve as an artery between Libya and Egypt, but these days people come here to enjoy the hot springs and palm groves, and to get a feel for the Western Desert. There are numerous sites of antiquities including the Temple of Alexander and various Ptolemaic tombs, as well as a museum that houses the golden mummies found here. Just south of the oasis lie the White and Black Deserts, easily visited from the town.

Day 20 to 22: Siwa Oasis

( Sun 16 Mar to Tue 18 Mar )

Today we will have an early start and a full day's drive to reach Siwa, our final oasis in the far west of Egypt where we will spend 3 nights relaxing and exploring the area.

Estimated Drive Time - 10-11 hours.

Siwa is famous for its dates and olives, and is one of the most beautiful landscapes of Egypt that often has some of the most colourful and vivid sunsets in Africa! Here we will have the opportunity to take a 4x4 desert safari out to the enormous sand dunes of Bir Wahid and to explore the historical sites of Cleopatra's Well and the Temple of the Oracle.

In Siwa we will stay in a local hotel.

Please note that the Bawiti-Siwa road is administered by the Egyptian military, and is occasionally closed off to us without previous notice. In this instance we will still aim to reach Siwa, but we will have to take the long-way around via Alexandria and Mersa Matrouh. In this instance we will have to spend 2 days driving to Siwa, breaking the journey with a bushcamp near El Alamein or Mersa Matrouh; we will also only have 2 nights in Siwa in this case.

Day 23 to 24: El Alamein, Alexandria

( Wed 19 Mar to Thu 20 Mar )

Today we will have another early start and journey north, where we will finally hit the Mediterannean coast at Mersa Matrouh! We will follow the coast to the small town of El Alamein, the site of the WWII battle that turned the tide of the war in North Africa. We will visit the Commenwealth war cemetery en route, which is an incredibly moving experience.

We will then continue along the coast to the bustling city of Alexandria, where will spend 2 nights exploring the sights. We will have the chance to visit the beautiful modern Alexandria Library and to go diving in the Mediterranean.

In Alexandria we will stay in a local hotel.

Estimated Drive Time - 9-10 hours.

Activity Approximate Cost

Visit to the war cemeteries of El Alamein

Included in Kitty
About El Alamein:

Alamein cemetry contains the graves of men who died at all stages of the Western Desert campaigns, especially those who died in the Battle of El Alamein at the end of October 1942 and in the period immediately before that. The cemetery now contains 7,240 Commonwealth burials of the Second World War, of which 815 are unidentified. There are also 102 war graves of other nationalities.

About Alexandria:

Egypt's second largest city and main port, Alexandria was built by the Greek architect Dinocrates in 331 BCE under the orders of Alexander the Great. The city, immortalising Alexander's name, quickly flourished into a prominent cultural, intellectual, political and economic metropolis, and it has been an important Mediterranean settlement ever since.

Modern Alexandria is still a bustling urban centre, and features some wonderful historical sites, including the Roman amphitheatre of Kom El Dikka and the incredible 15th Century fort of the Citadel of Qaitbey. There are some fantastic museums and the wonderful modern architecture of the Alexandria Library.

If you are keen on scuba diving, there are also some excellent trips out to wrecks and sunken Egyptian towns out of the harbour!

Day 25: Cairo

( Fri 21 Mar )

Today is our final drive day to the colossal, busting Egyptian capital of Cairo. We will aim to arrive in the later afternoon. Please note that if the traffic is particularly heavy, we may not be able to safely drive right up to the hotel due to parked cars blocking the streets; in this instance we may have to take the truck directly to a parking area and take taxis to the hotel.

In Cairo we will stay in a comfortable hotel located in the pleasant district of Dokki, a short taxi or metro journey from downtown Cairo.

About Cairo:

Situated on the banks of the River Nile on the edge of the Nile Delta, Cairo is one of the largest cities in Africa. Built near the remains of the ancient Old Kingdom capital of Memphis, the modern capital is a colossal buzzing metropolis which is the world's centre of Arabic culture, music and art.

There are countless highlights and activities to see and do in Cairo, such as exploring the narrow cobbled streets and ancient churches of the Coptic Christian sector, visiting the Saladin-era Cairo citadel, and discover some fantastic art in the Museum of Islamic Art.

Whilst in Cairo, we take an unforgettable tour around the sites of Giza - these include the ruins of the Old Kingdom capital of Memphis, the ancient Step Pyramid of Djoser at Saqqara (built all the way back in the 3rd Dynasty in approximately 2650 BCE), and the Red Pyramid of Sneferu at Dahshur (built in the 4th Dynasty between 2613 and 2589 BCE). This tour culminates in a visit to the world-famous icons of Ancient Egypt - the Great Pyramids of Giza and the Sphinx! Built as the tombs of the Pharoahs Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure between 2570 and 2510 BCE, the pyramids are truly a masterpiece of ancient engineering and ambition - the pyramid of Khufu was the oldest of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World and is the only one that still stands today!

Another massive highlight of Cairo is a visit to the Egyptian Museum in the central Tahrir Square. The museum is one of the most incredibly well-stocked collections of ancient treasures in the world, and contains the horde of phenomenal art and gifts that were uncovered from the tomb of Tutankhamun in 1922, including the Pharoah's iconic blue and gold funerary mask. The museum also contains a fabulous collection of other artifacts and the mummies of several important Pharoahs, making a visit absolutely essential while you are in Cairo!

Day 26: Cairo

( Sat 22 Mar )

Today we will set off in a local chartered minibus for an included full-day guided tour to Memphis, the pyramids at Saqarra, the Great Pyramids of Giza and the Sphinx.

We will aim to be back in Cairo for around 4:00pm today and stay overnight in the same hotel.

Tonight is the last night of the trip so we will go out for our final night group meal together!

Activity Approximate Cost

Entrance to the interior of the Khufu Pyramid at Giza

Included in Kitty

See the stunning Sound and Light show at the Pyramids of Giza and the Sphinx

EGP 120

Visit the site of Dashur, with the fascinating Red and Bent Pyramids built by the 4th Dynasty Pharoah Sneferu - includes entrance to the interior of the Red Pyramid

EGP 40

Entrance to the interior of the Menkaure Pyramid at Giza

EGP 40

Day 27: Cairo

( Sun 23 Mar )

Border Information: if finishing in Cairo, you will most likely exit Egypt at Cairo International Airport.

This morning we will head out on our final activity, an included half-day guided visit to the Egyptian Museum. We will go to the museum by metro or by taxi, and be shown around the vast and breathtaking collection of historical relics and treasures, including the sarcophagus of Akhenaten, the mummy of Ramses II and of course the incredible golden mask of Tutankhamun!

Please do not book flights out of Cairo before about 6:00pm if you would like to make sure you have enough time to fully explore the museum before the trip ends.

Activity Approximate Cost

Take a guided tour of the incredible Egyptian Museum in Cairo, and see it's overwhelming collection of antiquities including the contents of Tutankhamun's tomb

Included in Kitty
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Important Notes

The routes, activities and places visited described in these trip notes are intentions and are meant as a rough guide only.

These trip notes have been compiled to help you prepare for your journey once you have booked. They include the full itinerary and dates, and information about kit lists, meeting hotels, insurance, vaccinations, visas, and other information that will help you get ready for your trip.

We update these notes regularly, so please ensure you have an up-to-date version of these trip notes.

We intend to follow the planned route but exact night stops and inclusions cannot be guaranteed. It sometimes happens that we decide to make a change to our planned itinerary. This may be for a variety of reasons - climatic, road or bureaucratic conditions may demand it. By their very nature, overland itineraries need to be flexible and the regions that we are travelling through are often unpredictable. We run adventure journeys in off the beaten track areas, which often have poor infrastructure. You should expect that some of these areas do not adhere to 'Western' safety standards.

Physical Preparation

Physical preparation for Eastern and Southern Africa

Travelling in Eastern and Southern Africa or Middle East can be demanding - long, rough travel days, dusty conditions and basic campsites all provide a challenge. It can be very hot in places, but also can be surprisingly cold at night so please make sure you are prepared! There will be many early starts in Africa, especially on mornings where we head out on wildlife spotting trips. 

You will need to be fit enough to help every day with the camp chores (cooking, washing up, general camp set up) as well as putting up and taking down your own tent. There are some long driving days and some early morning starts.

The step up into the overland vehicle, while not overly high can become tiring and you need to judge yourself to be physically fit enough to haul yourself up and down the step at least 8-10 times a day. There are some long days driving on rough roads on all itineraries.

We will be travelling to areas in remote locations where medical assistance will not be available. If you have a medical condition such as a heart condition that would put you at risk, we would suggest that this is not the trip for you. Also, please be aware that should an emergency occur, there is likely to be a considerable delay in accessing medical care, and by joining our trip you accept this risk.

Visa Information

Many countries that we visit on our travels will require visas to enter. Some are best obtained before you leave home, and others can be obtained en-route. Whilst the ultimate responsibility for obtaining visas is yours, we will endeavour to assist you wherever possible.

The visa requirements for your trip vary depending on where you are from and where you are going. The information provided is given in good faith and we do try to keep the visa information as up to date as possible. Please read the information very carefully to make sure everything is clear and you aware of what you need to do. Please also be aware that rules surrounding visas do change, often suddenly, and without prior warning. This is why it is important that you also double-check the information we provide for yourself.

For visas that are needed in advance, you may wish to submit the applications directly to the relevant embassy or consulate. If you require any supporting documentation for your visa applications, Dragoman will obtain this on your behalf as part of your trip price - we will contact you to request additional information in order to make this application for you.

However, for trips that involve multiple visas, you may find it beneficial to use a specialist visa agency to assist you with your applications. While this does sometimes increase the cost, it usually makes the process much easier for you. We have a long-running partnership with The Visa Machine, a specialist visa agent who we recommend to help you apply for your visas (especially if you are applying for several countries at the same time).

As you will often need to submit your passport together with your applications, we recommend that you avoid making any travel plans in the weeks leading up to your departure.

Most countries require that your passport is valid for at least 6 months after your entry into the country.

For trips that are not yet guaranteed, you may find yourself in the position whereby you will need to start the visa application process prior to your trip being guaranteed - in this situation we still advise you not to purchase flights until your trip is guaranteed. However, you can start your visa application process, ensuring that when applying for your visas or letters of invitation that you allow several days before and after your entry into the country to allow for delays, availability of flights, etc. 

Egypt 

Citizens of the UK, Ireland, Australia, New Zealand, USA, Canada and all EU countries will need a visa to enter Egypt as a tourist for up to 30 days. The easiest way to obtain a visa for Egypt is to purchase it on arrival - the cost for this at the time of writing (2016) is USD25. Alternatively you could get it yourself in advance from your nearest consulate.

Citizens of other countries should check with the relevant consulates as to whether a visa is required, and whether you will need to obatin it in advance.

A valid yellow fever vaccination certificate is required from travellers coming from areas with risk of yellow fever transmission (including transiting through an airport in an area of risk).

Personal Spending

Personal Spending - Africa

Based on the range that previous travellers have spent on our trips in all of Africa, we recommend you allow between USD10 and USD20 per day.

This will cover individual expenses such as drinks, meals whilst out (when staying in cities), souvenirs, tips and personal permits.

Eastern and Southern Africa Currencies and Cash

It is not really worth trying to buy local currencies before you travel.  Do also bear in mind that many countries have strict regulations about the amount of their own local currency you are allowed to import - if you are found with amounts in excess of the allowed amounts, it may well be confiscated!

For obvious security reasons we hesitate to recommend you bring lots of cash with you, a sensible mix of cash and cash passports such as TravelEx cards and ATM cards is best. However, most of our past passengers have said they wished they had been told to bring more cash. Apart from the convenience of being able to change money in many more places, you will sometimes get a much better exchange rate for cash. 

You should take a mixture of denomination notes. Banks and moneychangers in most countries will now only accept bills with a metallic strip running top to bottom of the bill and which are no more than 8 years old. You should not take worn or damaged notes, or any that have been written on. Please bring the majority of the money you intend to change in large denominations (USD/EUR100 and 50 bills) as the exchange rate is often significantly worse if you try to change smaller bills; however, it is also a good idea to have some smaller bills as well, as in more remote areas it can be hard to change amounts over USD50.

Cash machines are readily available in most of East and Southern Africa but are not always reliable therefore we recommend that you do not rely on them as your only source of cash. Please note that most ATMs only take Visa cards NOT Mastercard. Please also do not not plan to take out large amounts of USD from the ATMs in Zimbabwe for use on the rest of the trip - the cash in Zimbabwe is often old, dirty and falling apart and will not be accepted anywhere else in the world. 

Please note that due to a shortage of money in banks and ATMs in Zimbabwe, many ATMs are running dry of cash and some local banks are putting restrictions on international cards being used. It is also illegal to exit Zimbabwe with more than USD1000 per person, so please make sure that you do not bring a greater amount than this out of Zimbabwe.

Credit cards such as Visa and American Express are the most commonly accepted, but be prepared for very high commission charges. Please do not rely on cards for daily use, as they are not always accepted outside of larger towns and cities.

Zambian Kwacha - please note that the currency of Zambia (the Kwacha, old code ZMK, new code ZMW) was re-based in 2013, and the old notes are no longer accepted. Please be careful that you only accept notes of the new currency (2013 and later) when exchanging money as some money changers have been known to offload old currency onto travellers. The new currency comes in denominations of ZMW2, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 - any notes such as ZMK5000 are the old currency, do not accept them!

What else you need to know

Overland Lifestyle and Trip Suitability

Dragoman was founded in 1981, and has had many years of experience of leading overland trips across 4 continents. Overlanding is all about sharing a great travelling experience with like-minded people. On your trip you’ll travel in one of Dragoman’s purpose-built iconic expedition vehicles on an off the beaten track adventure along rugged roads, experiencing the sights, sounds and smells of the world up-close. Your journey will be overland, sometimes across vast distances, so some long days spent driving are inevitable - but these will be interspersed with breaks of a day or two at a destination or activity. On an overland journey, you are more than just a passenger and everyone gets involved setting up camp - we supply the tent but it’s up to you to pitch it! As part of your trip, you will be assigned a truck job which could be collecting firewood or water, luggage loading, organising food, stores, etc.

Like all great adventures, the more you put in the more you'll get out!

We are looking forward to welcoming you on one of our overland journeys, but before we do there are a few things we would like to draw to your attention.

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Who Travels with Dragoman?

Our groups are made up of people from around the world, and are always an interesting mix of nationalities and ages. On average there is a pretty even split between males to females, and between solo travellers, couples and small groups of friends. We believe that overlanding should be open to as many people as possible, and so although we have a minimum age limit of 18 (or 7 on our Family Trips), as long as you are fit, healthy and passionate about travel, we are happy to take you, whatever your age is. One of the wonderful aspects of group travel is the camaraderie and friendships that are formed along the way, and the variety of people that you will meet.

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Group Size

The maximum group size we take on our overland journeys ranges from 19 to 22 depending on the geographical location; however the average number of passengers is more likely to be around 16.

Please note that there is an overlap of 2 trips in Cuzco and during the Inca Treks. This means a group starting a trip in Cuzco will embark on the Inca Trail at the same time as a group finishing in or travelling through Cuzco. In practical terms this means there could be more than 22 group members in Cuzco and on the Inca Trail at the same time.

Please note that there is also an overlap of 2 trips in Zanzibar. This means a group starting a trip in Nairobi, for example, will visit Zanzibar at the same time as a group starting their trip there. In practical terms this means there could be more than 22 group members in Zanzibar at the same time.

Please also note that on some departures there may be more than one truck doing the same route. This means that you will be in the same hotel or campsite as another Dragoman group on some days. To ensure that you are not always at the same place at the same time as another group, your itinerary will most likely be slightly altered from the itinerary advertised in these trip notes.

Our Crew and Guides

Our crew are passionate about travel and are always up for adventure. It takes someone special to become a Dragoman leader. Our crew undergo the most intensive training program of all the overland companies, spending 8 weeks learning the ropes at our base in Suffolk, UK, and then up to 6 months on the road as a trainee. Our crew are trained to manage and operate the trip safely and efficiently and their duties include: planning the trip according to the itinerary, driving and maintaining the truck, securing services of local guides, general logistics, health and safety, liaising with bureaucracy, dealing with issues where needed and offering advice and support to our customers. In addition they have a basic knowledge of the places visited and will be able to offer suggestions of things to do and see. Dragoman endeavours to provide the services of experienced crew, however, due to the seasonality of travel, situations may arise where your tour leader is new to a particular region or training other crew, new to the area.

On all Dragoman overlanding trips, we usually have 2 western crew. However on our trips in East and Southern Africa we either have 2 western crew or 1 western crew and 1 local driver. On trips south of Nairobi in East and Southern Africa we will also have an African camp master/cook who is in charge of running the camp and organising all of the meals. Their knowledge of the local produce makes shopping at the markets great fun and you will learn how to prepare and cook some unusual dishes.

In the rest of Africa, the Americas, India and Turkey, in addition to our crew we will employ local guides in specific locations of interest (for just a few hours up to a few days).

On the majority of our trips in Central Asia, China and South East Asia, in addition to our crew we will have a local guide on board who will travel with us for the entire duration of our time within one country. In these cases, the local guide becomes a third crew member and is able to offer their local knowledge as well as an insight into their country and the lives of the local people.

Your crew have a duty of care to all members of the group and therefore they have the authority to ask you to leave the trip if you require serious medical assistance, you are behaving in an anti-social manner or refuse to comply with local laws and customs. In all matters relating to the trip, the leader's decision will be final and we appreciate your respect of this.

Accommodation on Tour

Dragoman's overland trips are designed for shared accommodation, whether camping or staying in hotels or hostels, and therefore do not involve a single supplement. Single travellers will share with people of the same sex for the duration of the trip and whilst our crew will do their best to accommodate couples travelling together in twin rooms, all our travellers should expect to stay in multi-share accommodation from time to time.

The type, variety and standard of accommodation will vary greatly depending on what options are available at the time; hotels can vary from very basic rooms without electricity or running water to high standard hotels with good facilities! Generally in hotels most rooms will be twin-share, but in South America many rooms are triple-share. Hostels, gers and yurts are nearly always multi-share.

The campsites will range from rather basic to those with excellent facilities, including swimming pools, restaurants and bars. In some cases it may also be possible to upgrade locally to bungalows, lodges or even tree-houses. One of the highlights of overlanding is that in more remote areas we wild camp away from the tourist crowds. Occasionally on some of our trips we are able to stay in villages or local homestays allowing us to get close to the indigenous population and ensuring that our money stays within the local community.

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The Kitty

In addition to the trip price on our overlanding trips, you will also be required to pay a kitty specified for your trip (please note that there is no kitty on our Family Trips). The kitty is payable in installments at the start of each section of the trip for combination trips, and in full at the start of the trip for individual trips. Each customer joining a trip pays their kitty into a central fund. The fund is managed by the Dragoman crew and the kitty accounts can be viewed by all throughout the trip.

The kitty covers all things that the whole group does, such as:

• Hotel accommodation and campsite fees

• Meals whilst camping (not whilst staying in hotels)

• Activities listed as included (e.g. National Park or historical site entrances, excursions, etc.).

The kitty system is very unique to overlanding and we believe it allows us to have flexibility and transparency on our trips. You can see exactly how your money is being spent and ensure that you are getting the best value by buying locally. It also helps to keep the costs competitive and save on administration costs so that we can pass the saving on to you. Dragoman makes NO PROFIT on kitties, as they are the group's fund. We constantly update the kitty prices on our website and the kitty advertised in the brochure is an estimate at the time of printing. Prices can go up or down with no notice, and exchange rate fluctuations will affect costs. If there is money left in the kitty at the end of your trip, then this is divided between the group and you receive a refund.

Once you book your trip it is very important that you check our website on a regular basis and just before departure for any changes to the kitty amount.

The kitty is payable in full at the start of your trip (in installments at the start of each individual trip on combination trips). Alternatively you can pay in advance via a bank transfer 3-4 weeks before the start of your trip - please see http://www.dragoman.com/files/Kitty_doc_v6.pdf for more details - this letter will also be sent in your booking confirmation upon booking a trip. Please also note that this option is not available for our trips to West Africa or Iran.

If you are bringing the kitty out in cash, please try to pay in the specified currency on the website (usually in US Dollars). Your tour leader will be able to accept some of the kitty in local currency if needed, and they will let you know the exchange rate locally - in most destinations you can withdraw local currencies from ATM machines, using either a cash passport or a credit/debit card. Please bear in mind that most cards have a maximum withdrawal amount per day, local ATMs may run out of cash, and your bank could block the card despite you warning them of your travel plans, so it could be impractical to try to get the entire kitty out from an ATM.

Traveller's cheques are becoming increasingly impossible to change around the world, with passengers and our leaders having experienced frustration and numerous hours spent trying to find a bank which will change them. For this reason we cannot accept traveller's cheques on our trips.

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Meals and Group Participation

On an overland journey you are more than just an individual passenger - you're part of the team. You are expected to pitch in to set up camp, shop for food, cook and generally help out. As part of your trip you will be assigned a truck job which could be collecting water and firewood, sweeping out the truck, loading the back locker, etc. While camping on overland journeys, the meals are included in the kitty. This means that you will have to work together to cook for everyone in your group. You will be divided into smaller units of 3-4 people and take it in turns to cook for the whole group according to a rota system. When it is your group's turn to cook you will have to plan the meal, shop for the ingredients in local markets or supermarkets and then prepare the meal for the whole group. The secret to cooking for 20+ people using a basic camping kitchen is to keep it simple! (On trips south of Nairobi we have a cook on board the truck; however you will still be required to help them to prepare meals).

An example of a typical camp breakfast might be toast with spreads, fruit and cereal as well as tea and coffee. When time allows it will also be possible to serve something hot such as eggs or pancakes. Lunch is almost always a sandwich heaped high with healthy salad and assorted fillings, with fruit to follow. Dinner might be a BBQ, risotto or pasta dish and there is always the chance to try some local cooking. Generally our passengers find the more they put into a trip, the more they benefit from it.

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Dietary Requirements

If you have any dietary requirements please tell us at the time of booking and also remind your crew at your welcome meeting. Our crew will try to cater for any particular dietary requirement or food intolerance whenever possible. However, it must be remembered that it may not always be possible and the variety of dishes may be severely limited in comparison to those available to others. If there is anything in particular you require in your diet, that you would miss from home, or because of an allergy would miss out on, it would be best to bring this with you. Depending on your particular requirements, you may need to allow yourself some extra spending money to allow you to purchase extra food items.

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Itineraries

Our itineraries are developed and published with the best of intentions, however travel in more remote areas of the world is unpredictable – borders can close, there can be extreme adverse weather, strikes or maybe mechanical issues that affect the running of your trip, but equally due to the nature of our trips we can often spontaneously include a local festival or event into the itinerary. This being said, the safety of our passengers, leaders and operators is a priority for Dragoman. With this in mind we monitor world events very closely. By the very nature of the adventure travel that we take, there are risks and hazards that are inherent in our itineraries. Dragoman makes operational decisions based on informed advice from a number of sources:

• The British Foreign and Commonwealth Office travel advice

• Reports from other travel companies and local suppliers

• Leaders reports from off the road

• Local contacts we have built up over many years of experience.

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British Foreign Office Travel Advice and Warnings

Dragoman follows the British Foreign Office Travel advice when deciding where and where we are unable to travel. We will base our decisions on itineraries and alterations to published routes based on their advice rather than the advice of other governments.

However, we recommend you check the latest travel advisories from your own government for the country you are travelling to before you book and prior to departure. If there are any travel warnings present for the region you will travel to, as well as considering whether you are happy to travel despite the warning you must also check to ensure that it is not invalidating your travel insurance. Here are a few useful addresses:

UK -  www.gov.uk/foreign-travel-advice

Australia - http://www.smartraveller.gov.au/

New Zealand - http://www.safetravel.govt.nz/

United States - http://travel.state.gov/travel/travel_1744.html

Canada - http://www.voyage.gc.ca/countries_pays/menu-eng.asp

Dragoman has also teamed up with the UK Foreign and commonwealth office (FCO) in their 'Know before you go campaign' www.gov.uk/knowbeforeyougo. This website offers straightforward travel advice, top tips, and up-to-date country information to help you plan a safe trip. We recommend you check this out before you travel. We will advise you of any significant changes in advice before travel or whilst you are overseas.

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Health

You need to be in good physical health in order to participate fully in our trips. When selecting your trip please make sure you have read through the itinerary carefully and assessed your ability to cope with our style of travel. To help you assess if this trip is suitable, please refer to the physical rating. The ratings for each trip are a good indication of how challenging they are and in some cases you should be prepared for some long driving days and possibly limited facilities. We are always happy to give extra advice if you have additional concerns. Please note that if, in the opinion of our leader, you are unable to complete the itinerary without undue risk to yourself and/or the rest of the group, Dragoman reserves the right to exclude you from all or part of the trip without a refund.

You should consult your doctor for up-to-date medical travel information prior to travel, particularly if you have a pre-existing medical condition. We also advise you to declare any pre-existing medical conditions to your travel insurers upon purchase.

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Altitude

Some pre-existing medical conditions are known to severely worsen at high altitude and be difficult to adequately treat on the ground, leading to more serious consequences. It is imperative that you discuss your pre-existing medical condition/s with your doctor. We understand certain medications are reported to aid acclimatising to high altitude; please discuss these options with your doctor. For trips that travel to areas of high altitude, the tour leader will issue you with a self-assessment altitude questionnaire which allows you to monitor how you are coping with the altitude and informs you of danger signals so that you can reports these as soon as possible, either to the tour leader or a medical professional.

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Yellow Fever

A valid international certificate of vaccination against Yellow Fever is required in many countries. You may need to present this on arrival at the airport or border crossing. Some countries will refuse entry if you are unable to present your certificate. It's also quite common for your home country to request a Yellow Fever certificate on your arrival back home.

It is your responsibility to check with your doctor well in advance of leaving home about the Yellow Fever requirements for the countries you'll be visiting.

Malaria & other mosquito-borne diseases

Some areas that we travel to have a risk of contracting malaria. If you will travel through these areas, it's always best to get expert advice before travelling about the types of malaria pills available, whether they are recommended, and take any that are prescribed as instructed. Consult your GP or travel clinic for the most up-to-date requirements.

Other mosquito-borne diseases such as Dengue Fever, Chikungunya and Zika are continuing to spread and are becoming a bigger problem around the world. Mosquito bite prevention is vital to avoid contracting any of these diseases, as there are no vaccines or specific treatments available. Health professionals have issued warnings for pregnant women travelling to areas affected by the Zika virus - please see more information here.

The mosquito usually bites between the hours of dusk and dawn, so covering up by wearing long-legged and long-sleeved clothing, preferably light-coloured and buttoned at the wrists, can help. Do not sleep without closing your windows, tent door, etc. and use a mosquito net in hotels or if sleeping outside where there are mosquitos present. Use mosquito repellent applied directly to your skin or soaked into your clothing.

Treating clothes and mosquito nets with a Permetherin solution provides significant protection. It should be available at most travel stores. Mosquito coils are useful on still nights and in hotel rooms, but cannot be used inside the tents.

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Vaccinations

Recommended vaccinations and other health protections vary according to different regions and recent bulletins issued by health authorities. It is essential to get the latest specific health advice on the regions and countries you are planning to travel in, so please check with either your doctor or travel clinic in good time before you travel. The following websites are also a helpful resource: www.nathnac.org and www.fitfortravel.nhs.uk

In the UK, we have been working with Nomad Travel for many years and their website has comprehensive, up-to-date vaccination and health information. You will receive a 10% discount off all vaccinations given at Nomad Travel clinics.

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Safety & Security

At Dragoman your safety is of paramount importance and we will do our best to ensure that your travel with us is safe and trouble-free, but we do ask that you take that little bit of extra care whilst you are away and to understand about the nature of this style of travel.

Of course we want you to have an enjoyable time, but you must also remember that part of the enjoyment of travel is experiencing a different way of life and cultures. This may also mean experiencing different safety and hygiene standards than those you are normally used to.

Therefore, please take note of the following safety tips and follow any local safety advice or briefings delivered by our crew or any third-party suppliers we use during your trip.

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Transport Safety

• Our own vehicles have fully-fitted seat belts; make sure you always belt up.

• If you find a safety belt inoperable or missing on one of our vehicles, please inform the crew immediately.

• Unfortunately, we cannot guarantee that other vehicles we may use or recommend in some countries will be fitted with seat belts on every seat as it is not a legal requirement in much of the world.

• Please remain seated on board vehicles at all times when the vehicle is in motion.

• Never place luggage in the aisles or foot wells.

• Ensure you know where your nearest Emergency exit is; this may be a designated emergency exit, a window, a door, or a roof hatch.

• Check the location of the fire extinguisher and first aid kit.

• Follow any safety instructions provided by the crew/driver.

• Our vehicles are fitted with roof seats which can be used in certain conditions, such as when driving at low speeds, off main tarmac roads, etc. They can only be used with the express permission of the crew and you must never sit in them without seat belts.

Road Safety

• Traffic in some countries travels on the opposite side of the road to what you may be used to, so ensure you look both ways before crossing the road.

• In many countries vehicles do not automatically stop at crossings and driving styles may be very unpredictable, so please remain very vigilant when near roads and vehicles.

• Crash helmets are often not provided with mopeds and motorbikes overseas – we do not recommend you hire these vehicles.

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Fire & Other Safety – Hostels/Hotels/Homestays

• Ensure you know where your nearest fire exit is and check to ensure that it is operative.

• Check the location of the nearest fire extinguisher.

• Study the fire instructions in your room if available.

• Identify how to raise the alarm if a fire occurs.

• If a fire occurs, leave immediately; do not stop to collect your effects.

• Proceed to an assembly point well away from the building.

• Electrics in hotels in many of the places that we visit will not be up to the same standards as at home. Please ensure that you check rooms, especially bathrooms and are aware of any issues that look unsafe. If in doubt inform the crew who will endeavour to sort the situation out if possible.

• Staircases and stairwells are often built to a very different design than under western building standards. There may be no guard rails, be excessively steep, have dangerous gaps between the stairs and the wall, etc. At all times be aware and take appropriate and prudent care.

• We often stay in homestays and farmstays. These may range from a traditional yurt through to a tree house or a town house. As these are traditional homes, they may well not adhere to our western standards of safety and so it is important that you make yourself aware of potential risks.

• If in doubt please inform the crew of any safety issues with the hotels/hostels or homestays.

Fire Safety – Campsites

• Ensure you know where the nearest source of water or fire extinguisher is.

• Know how to raise the alarm.

• Extinguish all camping fires fully before retiring to bed.

• Observe any regulations regarding fires and bushfires in dry conditions.

• Identify how to raise the alarm if a fire occurs.

• If a fire occurs, leave immediately; do not stop to collect your effects.

• Proceed to an assembly point away from the tented accommodation/affected campsite.

Other Campsite Safety & Security

• Familiarise yourself with the campsite and any known hazards.

• Group the tents around our vehicle wherever possible.

• No open flames, smoking or flammable liquids in or near the tents.

• Ensure the cooking area is well away from the tents.

• Ensure all water for cooking and drinking is purified first.

• Ensure any soil toilets are a minimum of 50m away from the tents and the cooking area.

• All food waste should be burned or buried a minimum of 100m away from the site.

• Ensure local advice is followed concerning any wildlife in the area.

• Keep valuables locked in the vehicle.

• Be aware of any local security issues that might be important.

• Do not set out tents close to perimeter fences which may be a security risk.

• Be aware of the security arrangements and local guards for campsite and if in doubt ask them where and where not to pitch tents.

• If in doubt please inform the crew of any safety issues with campsite.

• When wild camping, ensure that you do not wander away from the camp alone. If you do leave camp, ensure that you have notified the leader or other members of the group.

Food Safety

• Make sure your food has been thoroughly cooked.

• Hot food should be hot, cold food should be cold.

• Avoid any uncooked food, except fruit and vegetables (notably those you can peel or shell yourself).

• In many countries you should only drink bottled water or purified water and ensure any seal is intact when purchasing bottles.

• On the Dragoman vehicles we have a tank of drinking water that is kept purified by the crew.

• Avoid ice in drinks as this can cause upset stomachs in hot climates.

• Make sure you wash your hands in antibacterial product when preparing and/or eating food.

• Many of the restaurants that you will eat in, either as a group or as individuals, will NOT have the same standards of food hygiene as we have in the western world. Unfortunately this is a reality of life in these regions. Therefore please think carefully about where you eat, what food you order and be aware of the risks.

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Personal Safety
 

One of the real advantages of overland travel is that the vehicle provides a very real level of security when travelling. There is no doubt that a properly-equipped overland vehicle, with safes, fully lockable doors and windows is an obvious advantage when travelling in much of the world. Generally speaking, you will not be travelling on local public transport and will have the added security of travelling in a group with experienced crew on-hand to offer advice. We have come up with a few pointers that we recommend you follow:

• Follow the crew’s specific safety advice in each destination.

• Always remain aware and vigilant, and stay away from situations where you do not feel comfortable.

• Avoid carrying too much money.

• Always avoid carrying your passport, driving licence, air tickets, and other valuable items around with you unless this is essential. Instead, keep valuables such as this locked away in the truck's safe, or the safety deposit box in the room or reception of the hotel/hostel.

• If you are carrying cash, cards or valuables, use a money belt or neck wallet which are more easily concealed and more difficult to pickpocket.

• Do not take any valuable jewellery, watches, etc. away with you in the first place.

• Avoid walking in poorly lit areas.

• If possible avoid walking around on your own; it is always safer to explore with others.

• Always try to walk with confidence and purpose, which will help you avoid looking like a lost tourist!

• Take special care when walking to avoid spraining or twisting your ankle on potholes, cobbles and uneven ground. 

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Activity Safety & Optional Activities

You will have the opportunity to take part in many exciting activities and excursions, some of which are included (e.g. hiking the Inca Trail, trekking to see Mountain Gorillas, visiting the Taj Mahal, etc.), whilst others are optional (e.g. white water rafting in Uganda, zip-lining in Costa Rica, etc.). Some of these activities require a certain level of fitness, so it’s important that you read through the trip notes thoroughly and make your own conclusions as to whether you feel that you are fit and healthy enough to enjoy this trip and its activities to their fullest.

Some activities may have higher risks than you are used to and you must judge whether or not you wish, or have the physical ability, to take part.

Optional activities mentioned by Dragoman are not included in the trip price or kitty, and do not form part of your contract with Dragoman. As such you accept that any assistance given by Dragoman crew members or local representatives in arranging optional activities does not render us liable for them in any way. The Dragoman crew are assisting you in arranging these activities for your added enjoyment whilst on your trip. The operators of these services and optional extras are local suppliers who contract directly with the client ‘on the road’, subject to and in accordance with their own terms and conditions. Dragoman accepts no liability for any action or activity undertaken by the client which is arranged independently of Dragoman while on tour. Crew may take part in an optional activity but do so as private individuals and not as company representatives.

Please use your own good judgement when selecting an activity in your free time.

Ensure that you use the appropriate equipment on optional activities, including life jackets, helmets, etc. This is especially important on activities such as horse riding, white-water rafting, etc.

Always ensure that your travel medical insurance covers you for all included and optional activities that you wish to participate in.

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Included Activities

Included activities are listed in the day-to-day itinerary, all other activities are optional and at your own expense. If you choose not to participate in the included activities on this itinerary, the cost will not necessarily be refunded; this is something you will need to check with your leader.

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Optional Activities

A selection of optional activities is listed in the day-to-day itinerary. This list is designed to be a helpful guide as to what is commonly available in each location, and is neither an exhaustive list, a guarantee that the activity is available, or an endorsement or recommendation. Please note that certain activities may not be available on your particular visit if they are overbooked, underbooked, out of season, or for any other reason - the list of activities is made according to our latest information and in the best faith, but please be aware that things may change between our last visit and your arrival. Please also note that it may not be possible to do all the activities listed in the time available at each destination, and it is recommended to give yourself extra time in your joining or ending city if you would like to participate in some optional activities there. 

Prices listed are for entrance only and do not include transport costs to and from the sites or local guides unless indicated - again, these prices are displayed according to our latest information and in the best faith, but prices do fluctuate due to exchange rates, season, numbers of participants, and simple increases from the operator - any prices listed are a guide only and certainly cannot be guaranteed. 

Optional activities are not necessarily endorsed or recommended by Dragoman nor included in the price of this trip. If you do any optional activities, you do so at your own risk and it must be clearly understood that your participation is your own decision and does not form part of your contract with Dragoman. You may be required to sign/complete a waiver form or optional activity form for some optional activities.

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Insurance

It is a condition of booking that you have comprehensive travel insurance. Without evidence of valid travel insurance you will not be allowed to start the trip.

We recommend that any policy has a minimum medical (including repatriation) cover of £5,000,000. We recommend that any policy also has a minimum level of cover for Personal Liability of £2,000,000 and for Cancellation and Curtailment of £5,000 (or the full cost of your trip). Cover for loss of baggage, personal effects, money and other inclusions are down to personal choice although please bear in mind that personal effects are more likely to go missing whilst travelling and you should ensure that your policy is adequate to cover the value of your personal effects e.g. cameras, tablets, phones, ipods, etc. Please note that Dragoman is not responsible for your personal effects and is not insured for their loss. Please note that you should be insured for trip postponment or cancellation purposes immediately upon paying a deposit.

Whatever policy you choose, you must ensure that it is designed for adventure/overland travel and make sure it covers any activity that you intend to undertake (whether included or optional). As such it must cover you for adventure activities such as white water rafting, trekking, horse-riding, etc., and that the 24-hour Emergency Assistance Company must be experienced in handling situations in developing countries - for example, that they have the ability to arrange repatriation from remote areas such as the Sahara or if you were trekking in the Andes. On activities or side trips that are not recommended by us, please ensure you are happy with the safety of the activity before participating.

Please double check if you have annual travel and/or credit card policies to ensure they have the cover you require, as many of these policies are not able to cope with adventure travel to remote areas. Many credit card medical insurance policies are not valid for travelling outside your country of residence or outside the EU.

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Our Liability Insurance

Dragoman has comprehensive passenger vehicle liability protection and tour operator insurance. These policies have total indemnities of £5,000,000 and £10,000,000 per incident respectively. This is in addition to local vehicle insurance and your personal travel insurance.

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Emergency Contact

We have a dedicated 24-hour telephone number which should only be used once you have left your home country to start the trip and in the event of a real emergency. Should you need to call the number, we will do what we can to help but please bear in mind that real progress or action may not be possible until normal office hours.

If your flight is delayed or cancelled, please let us know and then make your way to the joining hotel as instructed in these trip notes. If you cannot get through leave a message and a contact number as these will be regularly checked and the crew informed if necessary.

Emergency Number: +44 (0) 7985 106564

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Luggage & Kit List

Although you will not have to carry your main bag for long distances, you will need to help load and unload them onto the truck. For this reason we recommend that you use a backpack or soft bag rather than a heavy suitcase. During your trip your main luggage will be kept in the truck's back locker which will be inaccessible during a drive day, so you will also need a small daypack. This can be used to carry your camera, water bottle and other personal effects for daily use. Please be aware that due to the constant dust and vibrations your luggage bag will be subject to extreme wear and tear.

The size of baggage that can be brought on this tour is limited by the locker space on the truck. Different trucks have different-sized lockers, however to be safe we recommend that your bag be no larger than a large rucksack with a capacity of about 80 litres (approximately 70cm high, 40cm wide, and 40cm deep). The weight limit for luggage on all trucks is a maximum of 20kg. Backpacks should not have an external frame unless it can be easily removed and stored separately to avoid damaging other people's luggage.

Your clothes and equipment should be appropriate for the conditions you are travelling in, which will vary depending on which part of the world you're heading to. On overland trips, Dragoman will provide all camping equipment apart from sleeping bags and ground mats, so you'll need to bring those with you*.

Think about the climate and altitude of the areas you'll be travelling to - there's nothing worse than being cold at night so it's worth investing in a decent sleeping bag if it's likely to get cold. And remember that even when it's warm during the day, it can often get cold at night, particularly in desert regions.

For a general idea of what you need, this list provides a guide:

• Sleeping bag* - check the expected climate en route. Nights in desert, mountain and high-altitude regions and Patagonia can be very cold, especially in winter months.

• Sleeping bag liner* (or sheet folded and sewn up on 2 sides) - this will help keep your sleeping bag clean, provide extra insulation on cold nights, and can be used on its own on warm nights.

• Ground mat or compressed foam*.

• A day pack is useful for short hikes in the countryside, wandering around cities, etc., and also for keeping inside the vehicle for items used during the day.

• 2 sets of comfortable travelling clothes (light, easily washable cotton clothes are best).

• 1 set of casual but smart clothes for evenings out. Men should bring a pair of trousers that covers al their legs and women should bring a skirt that covers their knees and a scarf for visiting places of worship.

• 2 pairs of shorts.

• Sun hat or warm hat if trekking.

• 1 pair of sunglasses.

• Warm sweater/fleeces.

• 1 waterproof jacket with hood.

• 1 pair of comfortable walking shoes/boots (or ankle height canvas jungle boots).

• 1 pair of sandals or flip-flops.

• Underwear and socks  - thermals are also a good idea if you are travelling to altitude, Patagonia or to the desert, as it can get very cold at night.

• Swimwear.

• 2 small towels.

• Washing kit, including a small mirror.

• Clothes washing detergent, small scrubbing brush and washing line (just a length of cord).

• Head torch/flashlight with spare batteries and bulbs - only the 3 standard sizes of round 1.5V batteries are widely available en route.

• Passport photos - at least 4, and more if you are applying for visas en route.

• Good water bottle - at least 1 litre capacity.

• A pouch or money belt to be worn inside your clothing, or an unobtrusive pocket sewn into the inside of a pair of loose fitting trousers.

• Alarm clock.

• Pocket calculator - useful when exchanging money.

• Writing materials and notebook/diary.

• Multi purpose knife.

• Mosquito net - the tents supplied by us have mosquito netting and you will only need a net if you think you will sleep out under the stars a lot of the time.

• "Wet Wipes" (moistened tissues) and hand gel.

• Toilet paper - this can be purchased almost everywhere en-route, but one roll may be worth packing.

• Assorted sized plastic bags - protects clothing and equipment from dust and damp.

• Extra batteries for your camera, etc., as there may are only limited opportunities to recharge them en route.

For a comprehensive kit list, take a look at the Dragoman kit list that Nomad Travel has created. Dragoman customers can receive a 10% discount on all equipment purchased either online or in store. Click here to see the kit list - http://www.nomadtravel.co.uk/c/381/Overland

*For trips with camping nights.

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Personal Medical Kit

All of our trucks have a standard motorist's first aid kit on board for use in emergency situations only. The first aid kit is in compliance with UK standards for first aid provision within motor vehicles, and contain supplies to treat road side injuries. We do not carry prescription medications, therefore in addition to this we recommend that you purchase your own personal medical kit.

In the UK we have teamed up with Nomad Travel Stores and Clinics to produce travel medical kits. They have been designed in conjunction with the truck kits and contain everything you would need for any minor incidents and health issues. For more details please visit their website:

Overlander kit (including painkillers) - www.nomadtravel.co.uk/p/2910/Overlander-Medical-Kit-(P)

Independent kit (including painkillers and antibiotics) - www.nomadtravel.co.uk/p/2909/Independent-Medical-Kit-(POM)

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Passports

Check that your passport will still be valid for 6 months after the end of your trip - this is important as some countries WILL refuse entry to anyone whose passport is due to expire. A temporary or 'visitor's' passport is not valid on our trips. You will need to provide us with your passport details prior to departing for your trip. If you change your passport, please remember to inform us as soon as possible - however, please be aware that changing your passport can cause big problems if you need to apply for visas or permits (such as the Inca Trail or Gorilla Trekking) in advance.

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Pre and Post Trip Accommodation and Connecting Flights

At Dragoman we believe you should make the most of the places you visit, so if you would like to see more of the joining or finishing point cities, why not book additional accommodation to extend your stay? Dragoman can take away the hassle of time zones and language barriers by making the booking for you. This accommodation is only available at the joining or finishing city of your trip, immediately before or after the trip you are travelling on.

While Dragoman is happy to assist with booking your pre and post trip accommodation, it is important that you understand that you may be able to book your own room at a cheaper rate directly through the hotel or on the internet. Our additional accommodation prices are based on the hotel’s rate plus an administration fee. Please note our rates do not reflect last minute walk-in rates or internet specials.

We can also book arrival airport transfers for you as long as we have your flight arrival details. These are normally payable in cash upon arrival; however we do have pre-paid transfers in a few destinations.

Please contact our reservations team for details of the accommodation and transfers that we can offer, as not all hotels offer this service.

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Continuing Your Trip

Having an amazing trip and met a great group of people? Having too much fun to go home yet? If you're on one of our trips and decide that you would like to continue with us, then why not speak to your trip leader who can advise you of the cost and availability of continuing your journey.

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Contingency Emergency Fund

Sometimes, civil or political unrest, or reasons beyond Dragoman's control (e.g. a natural disaster), can mean that an itinerary is disrupted and we have to make a contingency plan. This may involve hiring alternate transport or even the whole group flying over an area. Although Dragoman will help organise travel arrangements, in circumstances outside Dragoman's control you will be required to contribute the additional costs involved and therefore we ask you to bring along a 'Contingency Fund' of USD400. In almost all cases trips run smoothly and this fund is therefore never used. We also recommend that you take along an internationally recognised credit or charge card with a decent limit in case of emergencies, such as medical treatment en route, or even the need to be repatriated; though these occurrences are rare. Remember that travel insurance policies usually only refund you for expenses after you have already paid out.

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Responsible Tourism

Dragoman is committed to ensuring that we have a positive impact on local communities and that we implement policies to minimise any negative impact on the local environment. We are dedicated to making sure that we adopt a responsible attitude to the areas through which we travel and believe that our trips should benefit the local people and their environment. Dragoman recognises that we are guests of local communities and strive to make these communities our partners, so that they benefit directly from our visit. You can find full details of Dragoman’s Responsible Tourism policy from the link below:

www.dragoman.co.uk/about-us/responsible-travel/our-commitment

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Water

The sale of bottled water contributes to an enormous environmental problem around the world. In addition to the water in the bottle, the production of a 1 litre plastic bottle takes 2 litres of water and 200ml of oil. A large proportion end up in limited landfill or discarded in waterways and natural environments.

Please avoid the purchase of bottled water by using the chemically sterilised water stored in the purpose-built storage tank on your overland vehicle. You are free to refill your bottle as many times a day as you like. You are helping the environment and your pocket!

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Electrical Equipment

Your vehicle will be usually equipped with a 12-Volt socket, so to charge your iPod, MP3 player, camera, laptop and mobile phone you will need a DC 12V adapter - the type that can be used from a cigarette lighter in your car. Please be aware that only one piece of equipment can be charged at a time and it will not be allowed if there is a risk of running the vehicle’s batteries low. Batteries may also be recharged from hotel room wall sockets and the majority of the campsites we stay at have electricity points, so please bring along your normal charging adapters as well. You will need to ensure that you have the correct country adapter for your specific charger.

For mobile phones, please note that most countries in the Americas operate at 850 MHz and 1900 MHz which is not the same frequencies used in Europe, Africa, Asia and Australia. Most modern tri-band and quad-band mobile phones will be able to operate on these frequencies but please check your mobile phone specifications before travelling to ensure that you'll be able to use your phone in the Americas.

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A Few Rules

Illegal drugs will not be tolerated on our trips. Possessing or using drugs is not only against the law, but also puts the rest of the group at risk. Smoking marijuana and opium is a part of local culture in some parts of the world but is not acceptable for Dragoman groups.

It is one of our core values to treat all people we encounter with respect which of course includes all the local people who make our destinations so special. The exploitation of prostitutes or children is completely contrary to this philosophy.

Equally Dragoman will not tolerate any violence or threat of violence towards local people, other group members or any member of our staff. Our group leader has the right to expel any member of the group if drugs are found in their possession, if they use prostitutes, abuse children, use violence or threaten violence, without a refund of the trip price.

We expect you to obey all the laws of the countries through which we pass. This particularly applies to the smuggling of contraband and possession of narcotic drugs (as above), firearms, antiquities and ivory. Any customer found contravening such laws or customs will be required to leave the trip immediately with no refund of the trip price.

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Issues on the Trip

While we always endeavour to provide the best possible holiday experience, due to the nature of travel and the areas we visit sometimes things can and do go wrong. Should any issue occur while you are on your trip, it is imperative that you discuss this with your group leader or our local partner straight away so that they can do their best to rectify the problem and save any potential negative impact on the rest of your trip.

We recognise that there may be times when your group leader may not be able to resolve a situation to your satisfaction. If this is the case please contact our customer relations department on

customer-relations@dragoman.co.uk.

You may also choose to provide details in your feedback questionnaire which we ask you to complete at the end of your trip, but we do ask you to be aware that it is very difficult for us to provide any practical help after the trip is complete.

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Tipping

Tipping is entirely voluntary. The Dragoman crew may be travelling with you for many weeks and usually they become good friends with most members of the group. It is sometimes easy to forget that they do work hard to ensure that you do have a great trip. If you feel you would like to tip them, they certainly would appreciate it.

On a number of our trips, we also use a local guide as well as our own Dragoman crew. These guides live and travel with you through their home country and it is usual to tip them when they leave. We recommend USD 1 to USD 4 per person per day, but check with your crew for an appropriate amount.

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Our Community

At any time before or after you book, you can join our community - Dragoland. This is a great place to ask questions before you travel and to catch up with your fellow travellers once your trip has finished. You can share photos, videos and stories and you can also download a selection of free travel apps. See the home page to sign in - it's free and easy. We also have a Facebook page where travellers regularly swap info with each other, as well as other presence on other social media platforms.

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Feedback

After your travels, we want to hear from you! We rely on your feedback. We read it carefully. Feedback helps us to understand what we are doing well and what we could be doing better, and it allows us to make improvements for future travellers.

Country Specific Notes

Sudan Note

The British Foreign & Commonwealth Office (FCO) currently has no travel warnings in place that will affect this trip for British clients.

Non-UK clients should check the travel advice of their own governments, as this may be different to the British FCO advice. Australia and New Zealand currently advise 'against all travel' to all areas of Sudan outside of Khartoum. Canada advises against all travel to Sudan and the U.S asks travellers to carefully consider the risks of travel to Sudan.

We therefore ask that all non UK travellers check their insurance policy carefully to ensure they are still covered for this trip (as travel to these areas may invalidate some insurance policies). All non UK clients will need insurance that will remain valid throughout the entire trip before they are able to travel with us.

Please note that there are no ATMs in Sudan (at least none that will work for non-Sudanese cards), so please bring plenty of USD cash with you.

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